MC0306 Naval Cannon Kit M1841. Her stern chasers are limited to 4pd cannons or 12pd carronades The term "battleship" dates back only to 1794; it was an abbreviation of "line-of-battle ship." We may deduce the improvement in tolerances by examining the weight variation of the pieces. The privateer is essentially a privately-owned frigate or smaller vessel intended for commerce raiding. Another problem was intrinsic to the vertical casting method; since the bottom (breech) was under greater pressure than the top, and also better insulated, it would have been the last to solidify, and therefore tin would have migrated downward. (Glete 53). (572). (Although the British navy still had some bronze mortars in the 1860s.) (And then the battleship would probably blow it out of the water.) The cheapness of cast iron guns made it possible to increase the armament of the merchant ship. On, As a loose rule of thumb, gun weight is proportional to the cube of the caliber (Meigs 204) and thus, for roundshot, proportional to the shot weight. As early as July, 1815, her battle armament was beginning to be removed, with several 24-pound long guns shifted to USS Independence. The 32-pdr was a popular ACW carriage gun, weighing 27, 57 cwt, and firing either 32.5 pound shot or a 26 pound shell with 0.9 pounds powder. (Wikipedia/Red Dragon). (Guilmartin, 322-3). Source: The guns were also inaccurate." In 1902, with the Mark VII 6-inch quick-fire, nine British warships exhibited prize firing rates that ranged from 4.17-7.38 rounds/minute. (63). This may explain the Union navy's wartime preference for smoothbores (Heidler 1046), even though in 1859, after comparative testing, the US government had concluded "the era of smoothbore artillery has passed away." "During the bombardment of Kagoshima in 1863 there were 28 accidents in the 365 rounds fired from 21 guns. While the basic concept is in Grantville Literature, there are some serious engineering considerations. Gunlocks improved rate of fire; Collingwood's flagship Dreadnought "could fire her first three broadsides in three and a half minutes." In Elizabethan breechloaders, the removable chamber was wedged into the breech. The British warships in active service in 1631 included the British Bear (40 guns, 1580), Adventure (26 guns, 1594), Warspite (32, 1596), Nonsuch (32, 1605), and Assurance (34, 1605). If the guns were already loaded, then with one man per gun, they could get off one broadside quickly. (Ord1880,76ff). Shells cannot be fired as fast as shot because the fuses have to be prepared and adjusted; percussion fuses are less trouble than time fuses. Solid casting was adopted in Britain in 1776 (Lavery 84). On the ill-fated HMS Captain (1869), the two turrets were on the lower (main) deck, and the masts were stayed to the upper (hurricane) deck. Frigates were of the fifth and sometimes the sixth rates (a sixth rate with only a single deck was a "post ship" or a "corvette"). One solution (Armstrong, 1854) was to provide the projectiles with studs to engage the grooves of the rifling. In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries one could also find heavy frontal armament in certain specialized warships, bomb ketches and rocket ships. However, I don't know the calibers. (Ruffert). In a musket manufactured at Mayence around 1690, "the muzzle portion turns round one-sixth of a circle, and then pulls out a short distance, liberating the breech-piece, which can be thrown back on a hinge." In response, Rebecca shows him a micrometer, and explains that it has an accuracy of 1/1000th of an inch (one mil). While tough, bronze is soft and thus subject to abrasion, especially if the barrel is hot from repeated firing. Krupp cast his first steel cannon in 1847 (Krause 59). (Hoskins 43). The, (1748) had 8x12pdr, 16x8pdr, 8x4pdr, and 10 swivel guns. The 1621 naval budget divided Swedish warships into, , Axel Oxenstierna proposed a new system that divided, Naval expansion in the second half of the seventeenth century resulted in the development of rating systems based on the, The only "frigates" on the 1633 Navy List had a mere three guns and were probably royal yachts. Early in the new time line, Ollie Reardon manufactures new three-pounder cannon for Gustav Adolf. (Tanner 233ff). This was despite bronze's advantages; it didn't rust, it was easier to cast ("iron had a tendency to harden before all of it could be poured into the mould"—Lavery 84), it could be recast without loss of strength, and bronze cannon could always be made lighter than cast iron guns of equal strength. Once the metal had cooled and solidified, the mold was broken so the casting could be removed. Much of what is discussed here is relevant to land warfare, too. The Carronade. In late August, Secretary of War John Armstrong ordered Izard to take the majority of his force, about 4,000 troops, to reinforce Sackett's Harbor. So the total amount of cannons on one side multiplied with the maximum cannon weight gives you the broadside weight. vary up to three hundred weight within the same batch. The standard package of shot per gun was 25 roundshot, 15 barshot, 15 double-headed shot, 10 "single" grapeshot, and 10 "single" canister shot. (Elkins 42). As broadsides became more effective, the superstructures became less useful and were reduced in size. We have to figure out what material to make it out of, how thick and long it should be, whether to have one long band or several short ones, where on the projectile body to place it, and how to secure it there. According to Martin and Parker (193), this was done manually; "the much more efficient process of allowing a gun's own recoil to bring it inboard under the restraint of a breeching rope was not developed until well into the seventeenth century." Naval Action. British designers of the late-eighteenth century found that three-deck 80-gun ships were top heavy; two-deck 80s were too long for their height, and hogged (drooped amidships); the two-deck 74s were ideal and, even though they were considered to be of the "third rate," became the most common "battleships" in "foreign service." In contrast, the 32-pounders surveyed in 1803. For this reason her high speed value means that she should be able to catch up with and force other slower square-rigged ships into combat. medium guns was bether for me because accurate and range. Here's one tabulation: Table 1- 1: Comparative Warship Classification, (; cp. (Glete 30). Third, consider armament development as a gestalt. The removable chamber looked somewhat like a beer mug. 38). Early in the new time line, Ollie Reardon manufactures new three-pounder cannon for Gustav Adolf. The rate of fire at sea was lower. An upper deck gun will also have increased range (as predicted by Torricelli) and can take advantage of plunging fire (shooting at the flimsy enemy deck, not the relatively stout side). 55 pound full cannon, flanked by an inner pair of 12-pounders and an outer pair of 6-pounders. (Owen 337). On the chamber side the vent piece had a coned copper ring that fitted into a coned seating. In essence, there were two clay molds, a hollow one for the exterior and a solid one (core) for the interior. This triggered a clause of the Naval Act which stipulated that construction would halt in the event of peace. In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries one could also find heavy frontal armament in certain specialized warships, bomb ketches and rocket ships. (Hazlett 82). (Corbett 333). After the War of 1812, there was a movement to simplify the ammunition logistics by having, e.g., all guns on a battleship use 32-pound shot, but varying gun barrel length, so that there were "heavy 32s" on the lower deck, "medium 32s" on the gun deck, and "light 32s" on the spar deck. One of the 44-gun frigates, to be named United States, was assigned to Philadelphia and construction soon began. Yard angles, ship angle to wind, cargo, fittings and ship condition affects speeds and turning rates. The carronade was largely developed by private enterprise toward the end of the 1770s, when naval tactics were changing from rigid "line of battle" actions to more close quarters combat. Carrinades for pve , more damage more xp , Anyone who has not tryed them in awile should give them a try , 2 straight buffs to them. Ship movement?) In the table, I introduce the metric "broadside weight," the total weight of shot that can be fired at one time. In canon, Grantville's machine shops quickly demonstrated that they could do even better. They could be fairly formidable; the, The "East Indiamen" had an unusually large number of guns for a merchantman, and a large crew, but the guns were still usually of relatively light caliber. Nonetheless, the specialized warship of the seventeenth century not only carried more guns, but often heavier ones. On the Dauphin Royal (1735), 74 guns, there were 13 ports to a side, the foremost about 18 feet from the stem and the aftmost about 10 feet from the stern. While a more uniform cast iron could be made in the early-nineteenth century, thanks to improvements in iron-making (coke replacing charcoal, steam replacing water power)(Morriss 188-9), it remained unpredictably brittle (light field pieces were especially prone to bursting, Unfortunately, bronze cannon were much more expensive, The complete mold was lowered into a pit, muzzle up. Even with the same model of gun, rates of fire will differ from ship to ship. He notes that ideally the finish cut would be with a reamer. This was actually done on HMS Inflexible (1876) (Watts 56); the muzzle was lowered to an armored loading hatch and the shell inserted by a hydraulic rammer. The first naval cannon were breech loaders, and Mary Rose (1545) carried both wrought iron breech loaders and bronze muzzle loaders. This scheme was abandoned after 1622. Guns designed to only fire shells (hollow projectiles) could be lighter than those firing solid shot; shells were lighter than solid shot of the same caliber; hence less powder was needed to project them; hence the gun barrels could be thinner. Ultimately, the USE navy went with a pivot-mounted Reffye-style mitrailleuse, having twenty.50 caliber barrels. Initially, they could do even better course of the ironclads demanded an increase in diameter or as annular. 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