Came, Saw, Conquered 1. He played a critical role in the transformation of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. He was born between 14 August and 13 September 20 BC or according to other sources on 23 September 20 BC. Caesar raised his ransom, raised a naval force, captured his captors, and had them crucified—all this as a private individual holding no public office. Intelligent, charming and calculating, he accomplishes most of what he sets out to do, until he becomes dictator of Rome for life and is violently murdered in the Roman Senate. In 83 bce Lucius Cornelius Sulla returned to Italy from the East and led the successful counter-revolution of 83–82 bce; Sulla then ordered Caesar to divorce Cornelia. J C Rolfe", "Suetonius, Life of Caesar, Chapters LXXXIII, LXXXIV, LXXXV", "Was Julius Caesar's epilepsy due to neurocysticercosis? Gaius Julius Caesar (or just Julius Caesar) was born in the month his successor would rename after himself, July (then called Quintilis), in the year 100 BC, to a minor aristocratic family that nonetheless traced its line back to the foundation of Rome, as well as the goddess Venus and the hero Aeneas. Caesar is often referred to as a "Wolf" by many characters. 1. Gaius Julius Cæsar (latinsk udtale: [ˈgaːjus ˈjuːlius ˈkaisar]) blev født ind i en kendt og meget gammel aristokratisk familie i Rom, der ifølge overleveringen kunne spores helt tilbage til forfaderen Julus, søn af den trojanske prins Æneas, Roms mytologiske grundlægger, der ifølge myten var søn af Venus. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. In the same year his wife, Cornelia, and his aunt Julia, Marius’s widow, died. Julius Caesar was murdered in the Roman Senate House by a group of nobles on March 15, 44 BCE. He changed the Roman republic into a monarchy and laid the foundations of a truly Mediterranean empire. From 133 bce onward there had been a series of alternate revolutionary and counter-revolutionary paroxysms. Written in a report to Rome 47 B.C., after conquering Pharnaces at Zela in Asia Minor in just five days; as quoted in Life of Caesar by Plutarch; reported to have been inscribed on one of the decorated wagons in the Pontic triumph, in Lives of the Twelve Caesars, Julius, by Suetonius 2. Julius Caesar, in full Gaius Julius Caesar, (born July 12/13, 100? Julius Caesar was born in Rome on 12 or 13 July 100 BC into the prestigious Julian clan. The date of Caesar the dictator’s birth has long been disputed. On March 15, 44 B.C. Julius Caesar was a political and military genius who overthrew Rome’s decaying political order and replaced it with a dictatorship. His father, Gaius Caesar, died when Caesar was but 16; his mother, Aurelia, was a notable woman, and it seems certain that he owed much to her. 'Μιαρώτατε Κάσκα, τί ποιεῖς; Ronald T. Ridley, "The Dictator's Mistake: Caesar's Escape from Sulla,", constitutional government of the Republic, frequently appeared in literary and artistic works, conspiracy to seize control of the republic, [ɪmpɛˈraːtɔr ˈɡaːiʊs ˈjuːliʊs ˈɡaː(i)iː ˈfiːliʊs ˈɡaː(i)iː ˈnɛpoːs ˈkae̯sar ˈpatɛr ˈpatriae̯], "Julius Caesar: The first triumvirate and the conquest of Gaul", "Lives of the Noble Grecians and Romans, by Plutarch (chapter48)", "Suetonius, 'Life of the Caesars, Julius', trans. Caesar was married to Aurelia, a member of the Aurelii and Rutilii families. There is evidence, however, that the Julii Caesares, though patricians, had already committed themselves to the antinobility party. Whoever had been consul in this critical year would have had to initiate such legislation, whatever his personal political predilections. It was evident that the misgovernment of the Roman state and the Greco-Roman world by the Roman nobility could not continue indefinitely and it was fairly clear that the most probable alternative was some form of military dictatorship backed by dispossessed Italian peasants who had turned to long-term military service. Caesar was stabbed many times during his murder but the physician Antistius determined that only one stab wound was fatal. Winning … The first triumvirate and the conquest of Gaul, Antecedents and outcome of the civil war of 49–45, https://www.britannica.com/biography/Julius-Caesar-Roman-ruler, Old and Sold - Biography of Julius Caesar, Public Broadcasting Service - Biography of Julius Caeser, Social Studies for Kids - Biography of Julius Caesar, Spartacus Educational - Biography of Julius Caesar, Heritage History - Julius Caesar - Ada Russell, The History Learning Site - Biography of Julius Caesar, History World - Biography of Julius Caesar, Julius Caesar - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), Julius Caesar - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). They had two daughters, known as Julia Major and Julia Minor, and a son, Gaius, who was born in 100 BC. Ob Rundenbasiert- oder Echtzeit-, ob Aufbau- oder Kampf- bei eurem Feldherren findet ihr alles! Gaius Iulius Caesar (deutsch: Gaius Julius Cäsar; * 13. Rome’s victory over Carthage in the Second Punic War (218–201 bce) had made Rome the paramount power in the Mediterranean basin; an influential Roman noble family’s clients (that is, protégés who, in return, gave their patrons their political support) might include kings and even whole nations, besides numerous private individuals. Caesar became a member of the First Triumvirate, and when that broke up, he fought a civil war against Pompey the Great. Learn how Julius Caesar and the Roman army created an empire. He is always seen wearing a… Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. The requirements and the costs of a Roman political career in Caesar’s day were high, and the competition was severe; but the potential profits were of enormous magnitude. Caesar was elected one of the curule aediles for 65 bce, and he celebrated his tenure of this office by unusually lavish expenditure with borrowed money. Julius Caesar was instrumental in the transformation of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire. Though some of the most powerful noble families were patrician, patrician blood was no longer a political advantage; it was actually a handicap, since a patrician was debarred from holding the paraconstitutional but powerful office of tribune of the plebs. Temple of Alexandria & the Black Bust of Caesar Commissioned by Cleopatra Gaius Julius Caesar was born to an aristocratic family. Caesar originally named the giraffe "camelopard" since it resembled a camel and a leopard. Table of Contents. Toward the end of the year of his praetorship, a scandal was caused by Publius Clodius in Caesar’s house at the celebration there of the rites, for women only, of Bona Dea (a Roman deity of fruitfulness, both in the Earth and in women). Veni, vidi, vici. Patrician is a … By Caesar’s time, the number of surviving patrician gentes was small; and in the gens Julia the Caesares seem to have been the only surviving family. He triumphed in the Roman Civil War but was assassinated by those who believed that he was becoming too powerful. See more ideas about Julius caesar, Gaius julius caesar, Ancient rome. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. The Julii also existed at an early period at Bovillae, evidenced by a very ancient inscripti… Ave! Gaius Julius Caesar (July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC) was a military commander, politician and author at the end of the Roman Republic. An aunt of the future dictator had married Gaius Marius, a self-made man (novus homo) who had forced his way up to the summit by his military ability and had made the momentous innovation of recruiting his armies from the dispossessed peasants. Julius Caesar Gaius Julius Caesar (soudobá výslovnost [kaisar], výslovnost [cézar] pochází až z pozdní antiky či raného středověku, 12. Auf meinem Kanal findest du feinste Strategie und Historienkost. His political views… Caesar changed the course of the history of the Greco-Roman world decisively and irreversibly. He later claimed to be a direct descendent of Aenaes, son of Venus, and therefore related to the gods themselves. Caesar was the eldest son of Augustus’ closest associate, Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, and Julia, the emperor’s daughter. Julius Caesar crafted an alliance with Marcus Licinius Crassus and Pompey to form the First Triumvirate and challenge the power of the Roman Senate. He was elected pontifex maximus in 63 bce by a political dodge. Gaius Julius Caesar was born most likely on 13 July (originally Quinctilis, but renamed in honor of Caesar after his death) in the year 100 BC. In 74 bce, when Mithradates VI Eupator, king of Pontus, renewed war on the Romans, Caesar raised a private army to combat him. Ironically, it had been the loss of his priesthood that allowed him to pursue a military career: the Flamen Dialis was not permitted to ride or even touch a horse, sleep three nights outside his own bed o… The Julii Caesares traced their lineage back to the goddess Venus, but the family was not snobbish or conservative-minded. Variant translation: 3. His creditors did not let him leave Rome until Crassus had gone bail for a quarter of his debts; but a military expedition beyond the northwest frontier of his province enabled Caesar to win loot for himself as well as for his soldiers, with a balance left over for the treasury. However, his most defining trait is the fact that he is extremely overweight, an oddity amongst Heroic Spirits. After the suppression of Catiline’s conspiracy in 63 bce, Caesar, as well as the millionaire Marcus Licinius Crassus, was accused of complicity. The Julii were of Alban origin, mentioned as one of the leading Alban houses, which settled in Rome around the mid-7th century BC, following the destruction of Alba Longa. Gaius Julius Caesar (100 BCE – 44 BCE) sister projects: Wikipedia article, Commons gallery, Commons category, quotes, Wikidata item. Julius Caesar Timeline This timeline details the life of Julius Caesar from birth 100 BCE to his assassination in 44 BCE Date Details EARLY YEARS 100 BCE (July 12th or 13th) Born in Rome. By now he had become a controversial political figure. He found it advisable to remove himself from Italy and to do military service, first in the province of Asia and then in Cilicia. It is improbable that Caesar deliberately sought monarchical power until after he had crossed the Rubicon in 49 bce, though sufficient power to impose his will, as he was determined to do, proved to mean monarchical power. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Caesar’s gens (clan) name, Julius (Iulius), is also familiar in the Christian world, for in Caesar’s lifetime the Roman month Quintilis, in which he was born, was renamed “July” in his honour. Gaius julius Caesar or Gaius Julius Caesar in modern English spelling (13 July, 100 BC – 15 March, 44 BC) was a Roman military and political leader. Updates? His father died when he was 16, but he received significant support from his mother. Juli 100 v. Chr. The Roman governing class had consequently come to be hated and discredited at home and abroad. In 69 or 68 bce Caesar was elected quaestor (the first rung on the Roman political ladder). Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. in Rom; † 15. Gaius Julius Caesar (20 BC – 21 February AD 4), most commonly known as Gaius Caesar or Caius Caesar, was the oldest son of Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa and Julia the Elder. Julius was born on July 13th, 100 BC for whom the month of July is named. The day was July 12 or 13; the traditional (and perhaps most probable) year is 100 bce; but if this date is correct, Caesar must have held each of his offices two years in advance of the legal minimum age. Gaius Julius Caesar, one of the most influential political and military leaders in history, helped establish the vast empire ruled by Rome. From the beginning, he probably privately aimed at winning office, not just for the sake of the honours but in order to achieve the power to put the misgoverned Roman state and Greco-Roman world into better order in accordance with ideas of his own. He obtained the governorship of Farther Spain for 61–60 bce. In 90 bce, Rome’s Italian allies had seceded from Rome because of the Roman government’s obstinate refusal to grant them Roman citizenship, and, as consul, Lucius Caesar had introduced emergency legislation for granting citizenship to the citizens of all Italian ally states that had not taken up arms or that had returned to their allegiance. Caesar was a member of the deeply patrician Julii family with roots dating to the foundation of the city itself. As a priest not only had to be of patrician stock, but married to a patrician, Caesar broke off his engagement to a plebian girl and married the patrician, Cornelia, daughter of a high pro… In public funeral orations in their honour, Caesar found opportunities for praising Cinna and Marius. This class had been partly dispossessed by an economic revolution following on the devastation caused by the Second Punic War. The Julii Caesares did not seem to be in the running. This was a difficult task for even the ablest and most gifted noble unless he was backed by substantial family wealth and influence. ", "Julius Caesar's Late Onset Epilepsy: A Case of Historic Proportions", Dickinson College Commentaries: Selections from the, Forum Romanum Index to Caesar's works online, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Julius_Caesar&oldid=994740728, Characters in works by Geoffrey of Monmouth, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, Pages using infobox military person with embed, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2020, Articles with failed verification from February 2017, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CINII identifiers, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎, Srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 17 December 2020, at 08:47. When he was sixteen, his father died and Caesar became the head of the family. Gaius Julius Caesar (13 July 100 - 15 March 44 BCE), Roman statesman, general, author, famous for the conquest of Gaul (modern France and Belgium) and his subsequent coup d'état. The old Roman calendar was inaccurate and manipulated for political purposes. In his absence from Rome, Caesar was made a member of the politico-ecclesiastical college of pontifices; and on his return he gained one of the elective military tribuneships. In spite of the inadequacy of his resources, Caesar seems to have chosen a political career as a matter of course. This name has survived, as has Caesar’s reform of the calendar. Caesar served his quaestorship in the province of Farther Spain (modern Andalusia and Portugal). The traditional competition among members of the Roman nobility for office and the spoils of office was thus threatening to turn into a desperate race for seizing autocratic power. In 84 bce Caesar committed himself publicly to the radical side by marrying Cornelia, a daughter of Lucius Cornelius Cinna, a noble who was Marius’s associate in revolution. Julius Caesar's family was old Roman nobility, but they were not rich. 1. But Caesar’s name, like Alexander’s, is still on people’s lips throughout the Christian and Islamic worlds. Military manpower was supplied by the Roman peasantry. Caesar’s triumph in a civil war in the 40s bc made him the absolute ruler of Rome, but political jealousies among his opponents motivated them to assassinate him. A Roman noble won distinction for himself and his family by securing election to a series of public offices, which culminated in the consulship, with the censorship possibly to follow. In the uproar in the Senate, Caesar’s motion was defeated. Director of Studies, Royal Institute of International Affairs, London, 1925–55. They were granted patrician status, along with other noble Alban families. März 44 v. Chr. Caesar afterward married Pompeia, a distant relative of Pompey. After Crassus's death, Caesar led his army into Italy, defeated Pompey, and claimed the title of dictator. When equipped to Gaius Julius Caesar only, Increase Quick Card effectiveness of all allies by 15% while on the field. / 13. července 100 př. Gaius Julius Caesar Ciarán Hinds: Julius Caesar: An arrogant and brilliant general, Caesar is also a subtle politician. En route he was captured by pirates (one of the symptoms of the anarchy into which the Roman nobility had allowed the Mediterranean world to fall). The Greco-Roman society has been extinct for so long that most of the names of its great men mean little to the average, educated modern person. He was of the Julii family 85 BCE (date unknown) Became head of the family after his father died. Caesar then went to Rhodes to study oratory under a famous professor, Molon. Caesar banned driving carriages on city streets during the first ten hours of daylight. Omissions? It seems unlikely that either of them had committed himself to Catiline; but Caesar proposed in the Senate a more merciful alternative to the death penalty, which the consul Cicero was asking for the arrested conspirators. A co-conspirator, Decmius Brutus, was Caesar's second heir in his will. Gaius Julius Caesar (13 July 100 - 15 March 44 BCE), Roman statesman, general, author, famous for the conquest of Gaul (modern France and Belgium) and his subsequent coup d'état. His first target, Gnaeus Cornelius Dolabella, was defended by Quintus Hortensius, the leading advocate of the day, and was acquitted by the extortion-court jury, composed exclusively of senators. Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox, Cornelia, and Julia, the emperor s! Julii Caesares did not seem to be a direct descendent of Aenaes, son of Augustus ’ closest,. Become a controversial political figure minor antagonist from Reincarnation no Kaben murder but family... 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