Brown Swiss. While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies. Many writers have suggested that the breed is centuries old and that little crossing with other breeds has been done for hundreds of years. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Many of them carried a light-colored or light grayish stripe down their backs. The Brown Swiss you see grazing across the United States countryside descend from Switzerland. Brown Swiss cattle are strong milk types, showing also good feet and legs and a good udder. All the cantons in which the breeds originated are inhabited by German speaking people, and apparently large cattle were brought in from Germany to improve the cattle of Switzerland, which until about 1860 were often quite lacking in size. The coat is usually a light grayish brown, but varies from almost white to gray or dark brown. The average Brown Swiss cow weighs about 1,500 lbs. They are a member of the "Brown Mountain" group of cattle breeds. One of these was the bull Junker 2365, dropped in 1904, which became Grand Champion at the National Dairy Shows in 1907, 1908, and 1909. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 3 types of milk, originating from Holstein-Friesian (HF), Brown Swiss (BS), and mixed of both breeds, on vat milk characteristics, cheese yield, and quality in 3 different typical Italian cheese-making conditions (Casolet, Vezzena, and Grana Trentino). This temperament makes the cow easy to manage within the herd which help to reduce work time ! • Declared a Breed in the U.S. in 1906 • Similar to the Braunvieh in characteristics. Project initiated April, 1994 - Initial web site opened February 22, 1995. I work with a few farms (as a milk tester) that have Brown Swiss. Characteristics: Brown Swiss vary in color from silver to dark brown and are large with large ears. Brown Swiss cattle can be a variety of colors, ranging from very light silver to very dark gray. 2 Dorsa M. Yoder and Jay L. Lush, "The Genetic History of the Brown Swiss Cattle in the United States," Journal of Heredity, 28(4), 154-160, 1937. Originating in the Swiss Alps, Brown Swiss adapt well to high altitudes and hot or cold climates, while producing large volumes of milk, ideal for cheese-making. which makes them the biggest and strongest dairy breed. Five other importations within the 10 year period following 1882 included those of L.J. Bones found in the ruins of Swiss lake dwellers date back to probably 4000 BC, and have some resemblance to the skeleton of today's Brown Swiss cow. 1 E. Parmalee Prentice, American Dairy Cattle, Harper & Row, Publishers, Inc., New York, 1942. Brown Swiss milk has a close fat to protein ratio making it ideal milk for cheese makers. In the mid-nineteen hundreds, they were imported by Mexico where they have flourished as a beef breed. They do fairly well on milk production compared to their feed intake. The Braunvieh cattle breed are well known for the very good milking qualities, docile easy to handle temperament and are the founding breed for the American Brown Swiss Cattle breed. There has been a total of only 155 head of Brown Swiss brought form Switzerland and recorded in the Herd Book in this country. Aldrich, Worcester, Massachusetts. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Brown Swiss Cattle Characteristics. Black hooves are the rule, and for good reason, as the Swiss is known for her hard, sturdy, and long lasting feet. This variation of color pattern was apparently introduced from the Pinzgau, and the Brown Swiss of the modern day seem to have acquired the light dorsal stripe from these cattle brought in from Austria. American Brown Swiss have since spread to Canada, Mexico and other Latin countries. The robustness and functionality of the Brown Swiss breed are the basis for its long productive and reproductive career. Their muzzle, hooves and switch (hair at the end of the tail) is usually black. which makes them the biggest and strongest dairy breed. Since no records of the breed were maintained for a good many decades after the formation of the breed, it is altogether possible that other cattle could have been used in the improvement. Brown Swiss cattle have been bred horned and polled, when horned the horns are short and white growing dark towards the top. The dark-blue pigmentation within it’s eyes serves as a means of protecting the breed from instances of extreme levels of solar radiation. Brown Swiss Switzerland, The Native Home of the Brown Swiss breed of cattle, is a very rough and mountainous country with a total area of about 15,940 square miles. Brown Swiss were first introduced into the U.S. in 1869. They are often noted for their docile temperament. Brown Swiss boast a low somatic cell count, contributing to a life span longer than most other dairy breeds. All rights reserved. He sired daughters that made excellent production records and had a very important influence in the breed.2 In 1906, importations were stopped because of foot-and-mouth disease, and only three cattle have been brought from Switzerland since that date. X Research source Most North American cattle producers have a criteria for differentiating the different types of beef breeds. Switzerland has been noted as a cheese producing country for many years, and in the summer many of the dairy herds are taken into the mountainous regions and are grazed on the abundant pastures and meadows that result from the heavy rainfall. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership,, Oklahoma State University - Breeds of Livestock, Department of Animal Science - Brown Swiss Cattle. 435500 Jud. We are currently looking for high resolution pictures of any of the breeds. document.write('animal-science-mail-form'); As is the case in the origin of the other breeds of livestock, this conclusion seems to be more romantic than correct. Herd Books for the Brown Swiss did not appear in its native land until 1911, although such a Herd Book has appeared 20 years earlier in the United States. The colour of the Brown Swiss varies from light brown or gray to dark shades of these colours. Omissions? Brown Swiss cows are good, persistent milkers, producing milk of average butterfat content as compared with other breeds of dairy cattle. Go on a field trip or road trip and see if you can find farms and ranches with BS cattle. Brown swiss cattle have a lot of advantages like milk production (primarily) and meat production but there are some drawbacks which makes the decision troublesome. Brown Swiss Cattle Breeders' Association of America, Beloit, WI, Handbook of Australian Livestock, Australian Meat & Livestock Corporation,1989, 3rd Edition. Brown Swiss • Dairy Breed • From Switzerland • To US in 1869 in Mass. Fun Fact: Brown Swiss have a kind nature and docile temperament. Brown Swiss, cattle breed native to Switzerland and probably one of the oldest breeds in existence. A notable importation of the breed was that in 1906 by E.M. Barton who brought 34 cows and five bulls to this country. Brown Swiss are renowned for their role when crossed with other dairy or beef breeds improving the production and strength of the parent breed. Brown Swiss cows are good, persistent milkers, producing milk of average butterfat content as compared with other breeds of dairy cattle. The gestation period of brown swiss cattle is quite long and requires extra care. Dairy breeds include Holstein-Friesian, Jersey, Guernsey, Brown Swiss, Milking Shorthorn, Ayrshire, Dutch Belted, Canadienne, and Randall. Introduction of the Brown Swiss to the United States. The exact date when this fashion arose is not certain, but it was at some time in the first half of the 19th century. PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS; The Brown Swiss cattle are a large breed of cow that has a large girth, long legs and straight back. Concerning the origin of the Brown Swiss, Prentice,1 who made an exhaustive study of the origin of the various dairy breeds, has stated: Brown Swiss cattle, therefore, first became prominent among dairy breeds about a 100 years ago. In 1882, Scott and Harris, Wethersfield, Connecticut, imported 19 cows, and in 1889, George W. Harris of the firm established a purebred herd later operated by his sons, George M. and Rodney W., of Wethersfield, Connecticut. Brown Swiss are the largest of the dairy breeds, and as their name implies usually solid brown in color. A very steady growth of the breed from this very meager beginning has been most gratifying to those sponsoring the development and improvement of the Brown Swiss. They are usually uniform brown or grey-brown in color. Their strong stature makes them very resilient, and free of common cattle problems. A Brown Swiss Cattle Breeders Association, which was organized in Switzerland, has been active in promoting shows and in the production testing and classification of the breed. The predominant cattle of Schwyz in about 1860 were of a chestnut to a dull black color, and most of the cattle were darker on their fore- and hindquarters than of their bodies. College of Agricultural Sciences & Natural Resources, College of Human & Environmental Sciences, Ag Education, Communications & Leadership, Master of International Agriculture Degree Program, Brown Swiss Cattle Breeders' Association of America. Their unique ability to yield high components with an ideal fat-to-protein ratio sets them apart from other dairy breeds. Copyright © 1995-2015 Oklahoma State University Board of Regents. Information on adding new breeds or updating existing information. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. McCormick, Chicago, Illinois; William Koch, New York, New York; J.C. Eldridge, Middle Falls, New York; E.M. Barton, Hinsdale, Illinois; and McLaury Brothers of New York. Take pictures … Breeds of Livestock, Department of Animal Science. It is classified as a large-framed breed, with a Brown E-unit: Major Breeds of Dairy Cattle Page 3 Cheesemakers and caretakers of the cattle accompany the herds to the mountains during the summer months, but as fall approaches, the cattle are returned to the lower lands where they are stabled or housed for the winter. Meat, milk and draft power are all capabilities of this breed. The Brown Swiss or Braunvieh are light brown in colour with a creamy white muzzle and dark nose, dark-blue eye pigmentation which helps the breed to resist extreme solar radiation. The first Brown Swiss cattle were brought to the United States in 1869 by Henry M. Clark of Belmont, Massachusetts, who visited the canton of Schwyz and secured a bull and seven females from Col. G. Burgi of Arth, Switzerland. 62 - Cod. The are about the size of a Holstein, but do give less milk. Characteristics The Brown Swiss or Braunvieh is light brown in colour with a creamy white muzzle and dark noze, dark-blue eye pigmentation which helps the breed to resist extreme solar radiation. However, about 25 percent of the area is covered with rocks, lakes, rivers, snow-capped mountains, and glaciers, and there are only about eight million acres of productive land of which one half is used for hay and pasture. Perhaps the oldest of all dairy breeds, Brown Swiss originated in the valleys and mountain slopes of Switzerland around 4000 B.C., according to some historians. Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions. The harsh climate in the Alps demands a special type of cow that can withsta… The canton of Schwyz was the scene of most of the early improvement, and in Switzerland the breed is often referred to as Schwyer or Brown Schwyzer. The milk that they do give runs higher in butterfat and protein (I commonly see 4.6% BF and 3.3% Prot for Swiss on pasture). Brown Swiss are recognised for their strong feet and legs, their quiet temperament and longevity. After the turn of the 19th century agricultural conditions in Switzerland were much improved; lands in many of the 22 cantons (similar to states) of Switzerland were put under fence, and crops of turnips, beets, and improved hays were introduced. They are often noted for their docile temperament. In the US, the six most common breeds are Holstein, Ayrshire, Brown Swiss, Milking Shorthorn, Guernsey, and Jersey, and each of them have specific characteristics making them suitable to certain climates or operations, and their milk desirable to a certain market of consumers. Please mail your original copies with our email form They are a known to come in varying shades of brown to grey with a distinct light-colored ring around their noses. Here the climate is very enjoyable most of the year with an average mean temperature of about 50 degrees F. The plain has an annual rainfall of approximately that of the midwestern Corn Belt region of the United States, but in the mountainous regions the winters are very severe and excessive rainstorms are common during the summer months. animal-science-mail-form «Bruna Schwyz» Maramures Loc. Brown Swiss tend to be calm, forgiving, and easy going, making them a great choice for the novice teamster.On the other hand, they grow faster and larger than many other breeds, which may be a disadvantage for young teamsters or those with limited facilities and small transport trailers. While these cattle are classified as a dairy breed in the United States, they are often considered a dual-purpose breed elsewhere, as they are heavier boned and thicker fleshed than the cattle of the other dairy breeds. This Slovenian Brown Swiss is a perfect example of a curious and calm cow, typical of this breed. Breed Activity in Switzerland. New Generation Genetics, Fort Atkinson, WI, USA. NOTE: The form can also be used for Comments, Suggestions, and Corrections. Bigger picture. Corrections? Braunvieh (German, "brown cattle"), in English Swiss Brown or Brown Swiss, is a breed or group of breeds of domestic cattle originating in Switzerland and distributed throughout the Alpine region. We are a global company that provides Brown … Besides that, they are spread globally. The average Brown Swiss cow weighs about 1,500 lbs. Brown Swiss cattle characteristics The breed has a quiet, docile temperament. The beautiful brown cows were developed in the north-eastern part of Switzerland. With a calm disposition, the Brown Swiss is a slow-matur-ing breed that has correct feet and legs. The Brown Swiss originated in the Alps in Switzerland. Their strong stature makes them very resilient, and free of common cattle problems. Brown Swiss cattle can be grey, dark brown, tan, or even almost white. : +40 262 311202 Fax: +40 262 314522 email: Asociación Nacional de Criadores de Raza Parda The Pinzgaur breed, which is apparently a native of Austria, seems to have been the breed from that country that was used in the improvement of the Brown Swiss. A.C.T. Switzerland, The Native Home of the Brown Swiss breed of cattle, is a very rough and mountainous country with a total area of about 15,940 square miles. Their nose is black and encircled by a pale ring. Please provide a description of this breed as well This decidedly improved the feed supply available for cattle, and interest was aroused in breeding cattle that were more productive. The Brown Swiss cattle is of medium to large in size. The brown cow is known as Braunvieh in German speaking countries; Bruna Alpina in Italy, Brunedes Alpes in France, and Pardo Suizo in Spain and Latin America including Brazil. The Foundation Stock. Sighetu Marmatiei Str. There has been extremely little promotion of the Brown Swiss breed in its native country although it has been exported to Russia, Italy, Germany, the United States, and many other countries where it has gained a very favorable reputation. --> There may be some shading in the coat, with the forequarters often darker than the legs and hind parts. Their hooves, muzzle and switch are usually black. They are used in a commercial capacity to upgrade the beef characteristics of Zebu cattle. The Alps separate Switzerland on the southern border from Italy, and the Jura Mountains form the boundary between Switzerland and France. # picoftheweek # morethanmilk # brownswiss Like the Jerseys, Brown Swiss produce milk with large amounts butterfat and protein. Direct evidence of such crosses is lacking.